As regards the rules and regulations concerning the “touristization” of underground environments, both natural and artificial (caves, mines, military fortifications, etc.), it is necessary to ensure the safety of visitors and members of staff. In Italy specific laws were passed with reference to European and international regulations concerning electrical systems, structural work, air monitoring in caves and all matters concerning the safety of those places whose use is comparable to that of a place of public entertainment. Below you will find specifications and law references.
The Cave of Isturitz (West Pyrenees, France): One Century of Research in Paleolithic Parietal Art Diego Garate 1,*, Aude Labarge 2, Olivia Rivero 1, Christian Normand 1 and Joëlle Darricau 3
The methodology provides a summary of suitable procedures and preventive measures to remove and control the growth of undesirable flora growths, which turns up near light sources in caves accessible for tourists. The internationally accepted term for these stands is lampenflora. The methodology is compiled on the basis of more than 30 years of experience with removing lampenflora in accessible caves of the Moravský kras, Czech Republic, and also abroad. Adhering to recommended procedures and preventive measures quoted in this methodology can fairly solve the problem of vegetation around cave lamps.
I have been asked to give some insights on how elements of possible meanings of sounds and perhaps music could be found in my studies on the sound dimension of Palaeolithic painted caves.
A team from the Czech and Slovak republics, lead by Doctor Natália Martínková from the Institute of Vertebrate Biology of the Academy of Science of the Czech Republic and Professor Horáček from Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic, found that over a tenth of bats hibernating in caves and mines may be infected with fungus Geomyces destructans in the region. Recording increase in incidence of Geomyces destructans infection on that scale is unique in Europe and has never been seen before. In North America, Geomyces destructans has been associated with white-nose syndrome that has already caused drastic mortality in hibernating bats. The scientists published their results on Friday in a peer-reviewed scientific journal, PLoS ONE.
Gaps exist in our understanding of how tourism development affects natural World Heritage Sites, including the nature and extent of different types of impacts from tourism in and around sites, and the underlying reasons for these. The aim of this study is to examine the aforementioned gaps in order to support the development of sustainable tourism in natural World Heritage Sites.Through an increased understanding of the risks and opportunities associated to tourism development and growth in World Heritage, this study hopes to encourage tourism development that while protecting the integrity of the site, also brings income generation opportunities for local communities associated with World Heritage Sites, offers financial and other support for the conservation of the sites, and contributes to visitors’ awareness about the values of nature.
Paleolithic cave art is an exceptional archive of early human symbolic behavior, but because obtaining reliable dates has been difficult, its chronology is still poorly understood after more than a century of study. We present uranium-series disequilibrium dates of calcite deposits overlying or underlying art found in 11 caves, including the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage sites of Altamira, El Castillo, and Tito Bustillo, Spain. The results demonstrate that the tradition of decorating caves extends back at least to the Early Aurignacian period, with minimum ages of 40.8 thousand years for a red disk, 37.3 thousand years for a hand stencil, and 35.6 thousand years for a claviform-like symbol. These minimum ages reveal either that cave art was a part of the cultural repertoire of the first anatomically modern humans in Europe or that perhaps Neandertals also engaged in painting caves.
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